The soil contents of As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr in the agricultural producing areas of Hainan States Farms were analyzed, and the pollution and potential ecological hazards of heavy metals were assessed by means of single factor pollution index, nemerow pollution index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average contents of As, Hg and Cr were higher than the background values of the surface soil in Hainan with their accumulated values being 4.90, 2.00 and 7.73, respectively. The spatial distribution of heavy metals pollution in the soil was uneven. The nemerow pollution index and the Cr single factor pollution index of Hongming, Dongchang, Nanhai, Donglu and Nanyang in the north areas of Hainan were higher than 1.00, which showed a slight Cr pollution. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals in the soil was 168.70, which showed an intermediate ecological hazard, and heavy metals As and Hg were primary factors.